heat power stations based on alternative sorts of fuel with application
of filtration method of combustion in superadiabatic regimes.
International Center of Cleaner Production offers realization of
the projects in civil-engineering, the building of mini power stations
on the basis of conversion technology in thermal processing of various
combustible wastes (e.g. hospital wastes, unsorted municipal solid
wastes, pulp-and-paper industrial wastes, ash dumps from cogeneration
and metallurgy plants, silt sediments after cleanout of rivers,
etc.). This technology guarantees a high efficiently, environmentally
appropriate utilization of solid wastes with low containing of carbon
(from 10%) and high humidity (up to 60%).
of universal equipment is adjusted on the basis of enumerated technology
to provide thermal processing of solid combustible materials and
to produce thermal and electric energy with high efficiency (up
to 95%). In addition, small material inputs ensure environmentally
appropriate processing of wastes. Besides the utilization of wastes
and low-calorie fuel, the technology in operation allows to extract
secondary products from wastes and to recycle them. For instance,
during utilization of oil-slimes and oil wastes, up to 50% of processing
material returns back as a ready oil product.
of worn tire covers and other rubber wastes, it is possible to extract
metal cords, powder of zinc oxide, pyrolized oil and fuel gas. During
utilization of worn tire covers, the new secondary materials (e.g.
isoprene rubber, tar and aligomers) constitute up to 40-50% of initial
weight. The generating fuel gas can be applied for production of
heat and electric energy.
of shale wastes, it can be produced a tar, as well as liquid components
fit the content of gasoline A-66 (in the volume of 40-50% from initial
weight of raw material).
The new technology
opens up possibilities in usage of low-grade coal including brown
coal, as an alternative sort of the fuel in environmental friendly
power engineering. It will allow making assessment of available
raw material and fuel resources, wastes and dumps, which are accumulated
for a long period of traditional mining operations. This technology
also allows starting modernization of technically absolete coal
The method is
based on a new physical phenomenon, filtration combustion in superadiabatic
mode, where combustion temperature in the reaction zone substantially
exceeds the adiabatic temperature of combustion. The rise of temperature
in reaction zone carries resonant character.
use of superadiabatic regimes provides possibilities in efficient
processing of various combustible wastes by means of gasification
with high-energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and a relatively
low processing cost:
appropriate utilization of different sorts of combustible wastes;
of environmental friendly mini power stations (development of
small power engineering) on alternative sorts of fuel;
of existing environmental faulty coal boiler rooms.
of thermal processing are arranged in two stages that are schematically
presented in Fig. 1. In the first stage, the processed material
is gasified in a superadiabatic combustion regime with air and steam.
The combustible gas product comprises hydrogen H2, carbon monoxide
CO, in some cases- hydrocarbons or other organic compounds are burnt
in the second stage in conventional utilities (e.g., steam or water
boilers) with generation of heat and electricity.
of solid wastes is realized in gasifier-reactor of the shaft type.
The regime of superadiabatic combustion is realizing in so-called
“density” layer. The specific characteristic of the given combustion
process - the evolved heat, which is not leaving the reactor (solid
and gaseous products are leaving reactor with relatively low temperature,
less than 150 Ñ. The main heat with temperature 1000 - 1200 Ñ is
concentrated in the middle part of gasifier and is consumed for
producing of energetic gas-product (hydrogen from H2O and partially
carbon monoxide from carbon containing substances).
Processing combustible waste with generation
The raw material
is charged into the reactor from above through a lock hopper. The
air and steam are fed from the reactor bottom. The product gas runs
out from the upper part of the reactor and the ash residue is discharged
at the bottom. The processing mixture within the reactor descends
under its own weight.
zones are located along the height of the reactor. In the uppermost
layer the temperature is maintained within 100-200 C. Herein the
raw material is dried with the filtrating product gas. As a result,
the product gas is enriched in water vapor.
is a zone where pyrolysis and coking of organics in oxygen-lean
environment occur. In this zone, the product gas is enriched in
volatile pyrolysis products.
In the middle part of the reactor is the gasification zone where
coked organics at 1000-1200 C react with oxygen, water vapor, and
carbon dioxide to yield CO and H2. A fraction of coke is oxidized
to CO2; due to this, a high temperature is maintained within the
is the zone where the solid residue consisting mainly of inorganic
substances is gradually cooled in the flow of oxygen-rich gasifying
agent. Herein, the remaining organics and carbon are consumed and
the processed material is reduced to ash. In the lowermost part
of the reactor, the solid residue is cooled to approximately 100
arrangement of thermal processing secures the following advantages
over direct combustion:
has high thermal efficiency (up to 95%); this provides a possibility
of processing materials with a small content of combustibles
(ash content up to 90% or high moisture content up to 60%, the
optimal moisture content is 20-30%);
flows velocity within the reactor and filtration through a layer
of raw material secures small entrainment of dust particles
in the product gas; this provides a possibility of dramatically
reducing investments in gas-cleansing and energy-generating
cases, when cleansing of sulfur, chlorine, fluorine, and mercury
is necessary, it is much easier to cleanse product gas rather
than flue gas because the product gas has the lower temperature,
smaller volume, and higher concentrations of pollutants; additionally,
it contains sulfur in reduced forms (H2S, COS), which are easier
to absorb than SO2;
nitrogen-containing organic compounds are partially decomposed
in oxygen-lean environment to give smaller concentration of
nitrogen oxides in the flue gas;
in modern burners is the most clean method of combustion; owing
to complete combustion the flue gas contains the excessively
low amount of carbon monoxide and residual hydrocarbons;
incineration secures dramatic reduction in formation of dioxins
(polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) because,
even in the presence of chlorine, formation of aromatics (precursors
of dioxins) in the flue gas is suppressed and concentration
of dust particles (catalysts of dioxin formation) is maintained
discharged from the reactor is relatively cool and is essentially
free of unburned carbon;
of certain wastes provides a possibility of recovering materials
of commercial value (e.g., pyrolysis oils) from the product
of energy-generating facilities is not restricted to water or
steam boilers; gas turbines or diesel generators can also be
used; the processing scheme can be accommodated to an existing
energy-generating facility with the product gas substituting
for a fraction of a quality fuel.
on the basis of gasification method of condensed fuels in the regime
of superadiabatic combustion have developed a number of technologies
of substandard coals and coal wastes with generation of fuel
of worn-out tires and rubber waste with recovery of metal cords,
zinc oxide powder, pyrolysis oils, and fuel gas;
of waste materials of wood and pulp industry (including lignin)
with recovery of fuel gas and pyrolysis tars;
of waste oils and oil slurries;
of municipal solid waste;
of sewage sludge;
of a number of industrial wastes, including paints and lacquers,
oiled sawdust and rugs, chemical wastes;
benign on-site incineration of the hospital waste;
of biomass to produce energy.
processes have been developed on pilot units.
The methods have been patented in Russia and abroad.
can be realized in continuous or batch plants (the latter, at a
low throughput). Presently, several plants were developed:
installation for incineration of metallurgic waste oil with
the throughput of 120 kg per hour (by combustibles). The installation
consumes 300-400 m3 of air and up to 100 kg of steam per hour;
the reactor is 1 m in diameter and 3 m high (Fig. 2).
for gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) with a continuously
operating gasifier-reactor and the throughput capacity of 2
t/hour (Fig. 3). The plant consumes ~1800m3 of air and up to
700 kg of steam per hr; the power produced in the after-combustion
stage is 5 MW; the reactor is 1.5 m in diameter and 7.3 m high.
The heat generated at MSW incineration is used for district
heating and hot water supply.
of the plant during experimental tests confirmed environmental
friendliness of the process; thus, the concentration of dioxins
in the flue gas, even with no gas cleansing, was within 2*10-10
g/m3 (in accordance with European normative from 17 BlmSch 17.12.1990
the concentration of dioxins in flue gas should be no more than
module reactors of this size can increase the throughput capacity
of the waste-incinerating plant.
characteristics of the gasifier-reactor.
(15 000 )
efficiency by redistribution fuel / gas-product.
capacity of burners (in the case of the lowest caloricity of
MSW= 11200 MJ)
production of heat
life (under due maintenance works)
of reactor's continuos work
from the level of bottom
load in the case of charged reactor
of gasifier reactor:
Height of working volume
area (without a site for reception of wastes):
One reactor-module (8*35) m
Less than 100
size of raw material's pieces
Staff (4 turns, each 2 workers);
Service activities. Corrective maintenance.
Consumed materials for gasification
Natural gas (pilot burner EEU limits)
Industrial water (or steam exhaust )
% from capital costs
(without energetic block)
number of reactors with other dimensions is under development. The
rest of equipment used including power-generating and gas-cleansing
units is commercially available. In certain cases this equipment
should be accommodated to the task. Besides, together with a specialized
designing bureau and plant-producer a start has been made on development
of a gas-turbine operating on the product gas combined with the
on the required power the general scheme of the waste incinerating
plant includes from 2-3 to 10 gasifiers, a necessary power equipment
defined by a customer (water or steam boilers, steam turbines with
electrical generators, etc.), and a system for flue gas cleansing,
the necessity in which is determined by the composition of a raw
mixture (content of sulfur, chlorine, fluorine and others). The
amount of toxic substances in the flue gas is guaranteed to meet
(or even be lower) the European standards. If the customer sets
up more severe requirements to the outbursts, they can be reached
and must be outlined in a special request. Different auxiliary equipment
can be also included.
Along with this,
a principle of modules, used in the project secures a flexible structure
of the process realization. For instance, if the customer has the
necessary power equipment (operating station, boiler works and so
on, with the developed infrastructure) only gasifier-reactors are
used. The produced gas-product can be burnt up in existing boilers
substituting partially or fully for the natural gas, black oil or
solid fuel. In this case the capital investments can be more than
line designed for the MSW incineration can be also used for processing
different types of waste. In this case some additional external
appliances and variation of the technical regulation can be demanded.
price characteristics of incineration plant:
incineration plant of European production costs more than 1000 USD
in recalculation on one ton of installed capacity per year; the
incineration plant, which is based on enumerated above technology
will cost 200-300 USD in recalculation of one ton of installed capacity
per year. In addition, it should be noted that all essential European
limits of maximum permissible emissions of dioxins and other pollutants
would be fulfilled.
well as the assembling and adjustment of the equipment is performed
within the year since the contract has been signed and the given
area had been prepared. The "North-Western International Cleaner
production and Environmental Management Center" (St. Petersburg),
which is supported by the State Duma Committee of Ecology and Specialized
Agencies of UNO (UNIDO/UNDP), realizes project maintenance, preproject
and project works.
contractors and plants-producers perform delivery, assembling and
adjustment of the equipment, putting the plant into service, personnel
training and control over the project.
MSW processing plantwith a continuously operating reactor (Lappeenranta,
the developed process, a high ecological friendliness is provided;
the solid residue of combustion can be safely disposed; as an option,
ash vitrification can be provided to exclude possible leaching of
plants (two of them in Moscow and the third one in Finland) can
produce such units for processing of solid combustible wastes (materials).
has a great interest abroad, especially in Europe, U.S.A. and Japan.
The request to build such incinerator with application of gasifier-reactor
came from Ireland, to combust the local fuel-peat. There is a great
activity to apply superadiabatic methods in Japan, to upgrade more
than 500 incinerators. All of them were built with application of
old technologies, which caused the presence of high content of dioxins
in organisms of local people.
Austria is interested
in purchasing of such units and building of incinerators both in
Austria and in Southern Germany.
was awarded by the Grand-Prize of International Exhibition of Industrial
of the brief commercial offer
Thermal power station, which supplies secondary renewable fuels
to ensure 50 thousand citizens by electric power.
The most important advantage of offered project of building thermal
power station with gasifier-reactor is the social effect of environmentally
appropriate and cheaper utilization (processing) of wastes in money
The effect expresses
in compensation of land costs, presently operated as landfills,
savings on land revegetation costs and costs for treating of unofficial
At the same
time, there is a great opportunity to solve the problem in development
of small power engineering on the basis of local untraditional renewable
sources of fuel.Thermal power stations based on such principle are
economically effective (self-supporting).
Thermal power station includes:
complexes of "gasifier-steam boiler", each of them
consists of two or three gasifiers, with gasification of low-grade
fuel – MSW on steam-air blast;
- Steam boiler, which is operating on poor gas as a fuel; the
steam output of the boiler is 32 tons per hour; steam parameters:
ð= 40 kilogram-force/sm2, steam temperature t = 440 C;
of "gasifier-steam boiler" complex can be realized
by Russian or by foreign producers following specification of
requirements and engineering, developed by existing companies.
2. Fuel: municipal solid wastes. Further, during implementation
of such complex, there is opportunity to use solid industrial wastes,
worn tire covers, pulp-and-paper industrial wastes as an alternative
3. Steam turbines with turbogenerators: four block steam-turbine
units P – 1,5 – 40 - /8ÊÐa with nominal capacity 1500 kilowatt each
(4 õ 1500 = 6000 kilowatt) and production extraction of steam or
the gasifiers needs, with backup systems.
4. System of purification and flue gases withdrawal.
5. Automated control system of engineering processes.
6. Buildings and structures with all necessary operational systems
of thermal power station and deliverability of electrical power.
indicators and characteristics of Object:
electric capacity (IC) 6 MW
of hours of IC usage 8 000 hours/year
3. Fuel: municipal
solid wastes, including agriculture and food production.
4. Annual consumption
of fuel 75 000 tons/year
building cost (max.) 12,5 – 13,8 millions of US$
of capital investment (max.) 6,7 years
realizes on the terms of "turnkey" for the period of 24
months from the moment of the signing of contract.
any futher information or implementation possibilities, we are always
at your disposal.
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